A Theory of Knowledge**
Clóvis Juarez Kemmerich
- The paper introduces some of the basic questions of epistemology. Its central claim is that what is real is real even without being known; what is known is known even without being justified; what is true is true even without being justified; what is justified is justified only with the best reasons at the moment; and what is founded is founded only if it agrees with what is real. Special emphasis is given to knowledge and foundation of ethics. Following Mackie, the author states that ethical statements cannot be ultimately founded because there are no such things as “objectively prescriptive facts”. Due to the non-existence of a Platonic world, where absolute moral norms are written, ethical statements lack reality and consequently foundation. It does not mean that it is irrational to follow ethical principles or the law; everyone can commit to construct the world as his reason considers the best. It would be irrational if he did not do that. But this is not the same as to say that people ought to want the best of the world.
Knowledge Management Progression, Issues and Approaches for Organizational Effectiveness in Manufacturing Industry: An Implementation Agenda**
Multilateral cooperation among business organizations calls for developing mutual trust and exchange of knowledge like the processes, sharing tools and techniques. The growing concept of knowledge management, focuses on the strengthening of the established tools for improving management efficiency and effectiveness in the organization. Knowledge creation, the successive management, and the use of this knowledge in problem solving and decision making processes not only help to deal with environmental issues but also encourages new knowledge to be created, shared, learned, enhanced, organized and utilized for the benefit of the organization and its customers. This paper identifies some issues and approaches to knowledge progression, which any business organization can implement for efficiency and effectiveness.
The Knowledge Management in SADC Countries**
Eduardo G Manuel
We are living in a complex world. The rate of change and the volume of communication in life have not been parallel at any period in the history of mankind. OECD (2005) considers that the knowledge society is fundamentally reshaping the global economy and by extension, the global society. Because this society relies so profoundly on the creation, diffusion and exploitation of knowledge, the success of governments depends increasingly on the information infrastructure for gathering and utilizing knowledge. This paper has as objective to explain how is the status of knowledge management in Member States of SADC. It can be inferred that in this globalization era, all members of SADC must define strategies of economic policy that should have as objective promotion of their per capita GDP, so that the entire population can absorb knowledge, and this will lead to an increase in the number of investigators in R&D. Moreover, through easy access and increase in information infrastructure, the people in these countries can be more informed regarding the culture, health and education of other countries as well as their own. The governments of these countries, which have low rates of adult alphabetization, low protection of intellectual property, and low access to the Internet, should define the economic policy for these areas to absorb foreign direct investment in information technology sector and other sectors where skilled workers are required.
Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivations and Knowledge Sharing in French Firms**
This paper examines the motivational foundations, based on intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors of knowledge creation, sharing and transferring process within manufacturing firms in an innovation perspective. First, using the French dataset, the paper studies the interrelationships between knowledge management and motivation management practices, and their impact on knowledge sharing (defined as conducting a shared pool of knowledge). The paper finds differences between firms’ characteristics regarding size, technological sectors, group membership and innovation performance. Second, the organizational diversity of the firms is discussed. The paper identifies three motivation management systems characterized respectively as: (i) traditional firms, i.e., traditional in their work organization; (ii) firms using personnel motivation practices; and (iii) learning firms using, added to motivation, and knowledge management practices. Firms using motivation practices are linked to agency and incentives theories based on extrinsic factors. Learning firms use both interrelated intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as suggested by the Self-Determination Theory and also by the Cognitive Evaluation Theory in which feelings of competence and autonomy are important for intrinsic motivation. Third, empirical evidence allows to conclude that motivation management systems have significant and positive impact on knowledge sharing, while marginal changes in individual practices have little effect. This logic of interrelationships accounts for synergies existing between these practices. The result supports the notion that motivation practices must be systematically associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation practices and specific organization, in order to reach the maximum performance.
Read/purchase th articles online.
* © 2008 Clóvis Juarez Kemmerich. All Rights Reserved.
** © 2008 The Icfai University Press. All Rights Reserved